ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors (2023)


(Adopted 1984; Revised 1992, 1998, 2004, 2010, 2016, 2022)


The American School Counseling Association (ASCA) is a professional organization supporting school counselors, school counseling students/interns, school counseling program directors/supervisors, and school counseling educators. These standards are the ethical responsibility of all school counselors.

School Counselors have the unique qualifications and skills to implement a comprehensive school counseling program that meets the academic, professional, and social/emotional development needs of students in grades PK-12. School Counselors are leaders, advocates, partners and advisors who drive systemic change to ensure equitable educational outcomes through the School Counseling Program. School counselors demonstrate the belief that all students have the capacity to learn by promoting and contributing to an education system that provides optimal learning environments for all students.

All students are entitled:

  • Be respected and treated with dignity.
  • A physically and emotionally safe, inclusive and healthy school environment, both in person and through digital platforms, free from abuse, bullying, harassment, discrimination and any other form of violence.
  • Equal access to a school counseling program that promotes academic, professional, and social/emotional development and improves student outcomes for all students, including students who are historically and currently underserved by the education system.
  • Equal access to school counselors who support students from all backgrounds and circumstances and who advocate and support all students regardless of, but not limited to, ethnic/racial identity; Nationality; Years; social class; economic status; abilities/disabilities; Language; immigration status; sexual orientation; gender identity; gender expression; a kind of family; religious/spiritual identity; and life situations, including emancipated minors, state custody, homelessness, or incarceration.
  • Information and support needed to enhance self-development and self-assertion within the group identity.
  • From preschool through grade 12, essential, timely information about how college, career and technical school, the military, the workforce, and other post-secondary options can affect your educational decisions and future opportunities.
  • Privacy is respected as much as possible, which can sometimes be constrained by school counselors balancing other competing interests (e.g., student welfare, safety of others, parental rights) and compliance with laws, policies, and standards ethical. related to secrecy and disclosure in the school environment.


In this document, ASCA specifies a commitment to the principles of ethical behavior necessary to maintain the highest standards of integrity, leadership and professionalism. The ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors were developed in collaboration with school counselors, state guidance associations, school guidance districts, and heads of state and guidance educators across the country to clarify the norms, values, and beliefs of the profession.

The purpose of this document is:

  • Serve as a guide to ethical practices for all individuals who work as school counselors, including school counselors, school counseling students/interns, supervisors/directors of school counseling programs, and instructors of school counselors, regardless of education level, geographic area , population served, or member of ASCA.
  • Provide support and guidance for self-evaluation, peer counseling, and performance evaluation related to school counselor responsibilities to students, parents/guardians, peers and professional partners, school districts and staff, communities, and the community.
  • Educate all educational stakeholders, including but not limited to students, parents/guardians, faculty/staff, administrators, community members, legal professionals, and courts, about the ethical practices, values, and professional behaviors expected of school counseling.


TO 1. Support for student development

School counselor:

  1. They have a primary obligation to students, who are to be treated as unique individuals with dignity and respect.
  2. Encourage and affirm all students and their identity and psychosocial development.
  3. Support all students and their development by actively working to remove systemic barriers or biases that impede student development.
  4. Provide students with culturally appropriate instruction and assessment.
  5. Provide students with culture-sensitive counseling in brief context, and support students and their families/guardians to seek outside services when students need long-term clinical/mental health counseling. image ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors
  6. Don't make diagnoses, but recognize how a student's diagnosis and environment can affect access, participation, and the student's ability to achieve academic, post-secondary, and social/emotional success.
  7. Recognize the important role and rights of parents/guardians, families and tribal communities.
  8. Respect the values, beliefs, and cultural background of students and their families, as well as students' sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression, and be careful not to impose deeply held personal prejudices, beliefs, or values ​​of their own religion, culture, or ethnic origin .
  9. They are aware of local, state, and federal laws, as well as school and district policies and procedures that affect students and families, and strive to protect students and families and educate them about their rights.
  10. Advocate for equitable, anti-oppressive, and anti-judgemental policies and procedures, systems, and practices, and provide effective, evidence-based, and culturally sustainable interventions to address student needs.
  11. Engage a variety of support networks, including but not limited to education teams, community and tribal agencies and partners, round-the-clock services, and vocational rehabilitation to better serve students.
  12. Maintain reasonable boundaries and be aware that any sexual or romantic relationship with students (whether legal or illegal in the work state) is a serious violation of ethics and is prohibited regardless of the student's age or consent. This prohibition applies to face-to-face and electronic interactions and relationships.

A.2. confidentiality

School counselor:

  1. Promote awareness of ethical standards and legal requirements for school counselors regarding confidentiality and proper justification and procedures for disclosing student data and information to school officials.
  2. Inform students of the purposes, objectives, techniques, rules and procedures under which they can receive counseling. Disclosure includes declaration of consent and clarification of confidentiality boundaries.
  3. Recognize that informed consent requires competence, willingness, and knowledge on the part of students to understand the limits of confidentiality, and therefore may be difficult to achieve for students of certain developmental levels and populations with special needs. The school counselor should attempt to obtain appropriate consent for the individual student (eg, in the student's preferred language) prior to disclosure.
  4. You understand that while attempts are made to obtain informed consent, this is not always possible. When necessary, school counselors make decisions on behalf of students that promote student well-being.
  5. Explain the boundaries of confidentiality in developmentally appropriate terms through various methods, such as B. student manuals; face-to-face teaching; oral communication to individual students; and School Counseling Department websites, brochures, and social media accounts.
  6. Keep information confidential unless disclosure of confidential information is required by law or the breach is necessary to prevent serious and foreseeable harm to the student or others. Serious and foreseeable harm is different for every child in schools and is determined by the student's chronological and developmental age, the environment, parental/guardian rights, and the nature of the harm. School counselors consult appropriate professionals when there is doubt about the validity of an exception.
  7. Recognize that your primary ethical obligation of confidentiality is to students, but balance that obligation with understanding the legal and inherent rights of parents/guardians to be a primary voice in their children's lives. School counselors understand the need to balance students' ethical rights to make decisions, their ability to give consent or consent, and the legal rights and responsibilities of parents or family members to make decisions on behalf of their children.
  8. Collaborate and involve students as much as possible and use the most appropriate and least intrusive method of breaching confidentiality when such action is warranted. The child's developmental age and circumstances necessitating the infraction are considered, and students discuss the method and timing of the infraction, as appropriate. Consultation with professional colleagues and/or supervision is recommended.
  9. The court requires that disclosure not be required when subpoenaing school counselor statements or case notes where disclosure of confidential information could harm a student or counseling relationship.
  10. Protect the confidentiality of student records and disclosure of personal information in accordance with required federal and state laws and school and city policies.
  11. Recognize the confidentiality vulnerabilities in electronic communications and only transmit student information electronically in a manner that meets currently accepted security standards and complies with federal, state, and local laws and school board guidelines.
  12. Transmission of highly confidential student information (eg, student suicidal thoughts) through personal contact, such as B. a phone call or visit, and equally secure means such. B. an educational file entry or electronic mail. Follow federal, state, and local laws and school board guidelines when submitting confidential information.
  13. Uphold appropriate safeguards and protocols to ensure highly confidential student information is not inadvertently disclosed to those who do not need the information. Best practices suggest that a very limited number of educators would have access to highly confidential information on a need-to-know basis.
  14. Intercede with appropriate school officials to ensure acceptable encryption standards are used for data at rest and currently acceptable algorithms for data in transit.
  15. Avoid using software programs without the technological capabilities to protect student information in accordance with applicable law and currently acceptable security standards.
  16. Advocate for physical and virtual workspaces organized to protect the confidentiality of student communications and records.

A. 3. Comprehensive School Counseling Program

School counselor:

  1. Provide students with a culturally sensitive school counseling program that promotes academic, career, and social/emotional development and equal opportunity and achievement outcomes for all students.
  2. Work with administration, teachers, staff, and stakeholders to achieve equitable school improvement goals.
  3. Use data collection tools that comply with A.2 confidentiality standards.
  4. Review and use school and student data to assess and address needs, including but not limited to data on existing strengths and differences in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, and/or other relevant classifications.
  5. Offer research-based interventions to address performance, performance, information, attendance, discipline, resource, and opportunity gaps.
  6. Collect and analyze ASCA participation, mindset, behavior, and outcome data to determine the progress and effectiveness of the school counseling program.
  7. Share data results with stakeholders.

A.4. Academic, professional and social/emotional planning

School counselor:

  1. Work with a community of stakeholders to create a culture of post-secondary readiness.
  2. Provide and advocate for post-secondary awareness, exploration and planning, and career choices for all students from pre-school through post-secondary school to support students' right to choose from a wide range of career and post-secondary options secondary, including: but not limited to other, college/university, trade and technical school, military or employment.
  3. Identify and examine gaps in college and career access and address intentional and unintentional biases in post-secondary and career guidance.
  4. Provide opportunities for all students to develop a positive attitude towards learning, effective learning strategies, self-management and social skills, and an understanding that lifelong learning is part of long-term career success.
  5. Address your personal biases about students' post-secondary options.
  6. Address systemic unfair policies and practices related to postsecondary degree options.

A. 5. Maintain healthy relationships and manage boundaries

School counselor:

  1. Participate in professional roles and relationships with students and interest groups that promote student well-being and success.
  2. Realize that building credibility, rapport, and an effective working alliance with some students and stakeholders can be facilitated by building relationships that extend beyond the school day (eg, improvement organizations).
  3. Assess the potential risks and benefits before extending relationships beyond the school building and school hours (eg, assisting students with extracurricular activities off school grounds, student honors ceremonies, hospital visits, funerals).
  4. Document the nature of relationship extensions, including rationale, potential benefits, and potential consequences for the student and school counselor.
  5. Act to eliminate and/or reduce the potential for harm to students and stakeholders in a relationship or interaction through the use of safeguards such as informed consent, counseling, monitoring and documentation.
  6. Prevent potential harm to students and stakeholders where the school counselor's judgment may be impaired (eg, family members, children of close friends) by helping to facilitate the delivery of alternative resources or services, where available.
  7. Adhere to legal, ethical, district, school, and student and stakeholder relationship policies.
  8. Do not use personal social media, text messages, and email accounts to interact with students unless approved by the school district. Comply with legal, ethical, district and school policies when using technology with students and stakeholders.
  9. Avoid inappropriate roles and relationships, such as B. providing direct discipline, running courses that involve student assessment, and performing administrative tasks in the absence of an administrator.
  10. Strive to avoid a conflict of interest through self-promotion that would benefit the school counselor personally and/or financially (eg, promoting your products and/or services).

A.6 Appropriate collaboration, advocacy and recommendations for consultation

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School counselor:

  1. Contact all relevant stakeholders, including students, faculty/staff, and parents/guardians, when students need assistance, including when early warning signs of student distress are identified.
  2. Provide students and parents/guardians with a list of outside agencies and resources in or near your community if students need or request additional assistance. School counselors provide various referral options or the district-reviewed list of referral options and are careful not to indicate an endorsement or preference for any individual or practice. School counselors encourage parents/guardians to research the skills/experience of outside professionals to make their personal decision as to the best source of support for their student.
  3. Connect students to services provided by local school districts and community agencies and stay current with state laws and local district policies regarding students with special needs, including confidentiality limits and notification to law enforcement where appropriate.
  4. Develop a plan for transitioning primary consulting services with minimal disruption to services. Students retain the right to have referral services performed in coordination with the school counselor or to discontinue counseling services with the school counselor while maintaining an appropriate relationship, which may include participation in other school support services.
  5. Refrain from referring students based solely on the school counselor's personal beliefs or values, which are rooted in your own religion, culture, ethnicity, or personal worldview. School counselors respect students' cultural identities and worldviews. School counselors seek additional training and supervision when their values ​​are of a discriminatory nature (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, reproductive rights, race, religion, ability). School counselors do not impose their values ​​on students and/or families by referring them to outside resources for student and/or family support.
  6. Try to establish a cooperative relationship with external service providers to provide better service to students. Obtain a signed information release from the student and/or parent/legal guardian before attempting to work with the student's external provider.
  7. Provide internal and external service providers with accurate and meaningful data needed to properly assess, advise, and support students.
  8. Please ensure there is no conflict of interest when providing referral resources. School counselors do not recommend or accept counseling referrals from students at their school if they also work in private practice.

A.7. Group work

School counselor:

  1. Provide culturally sustainable counseling services to small groups based on the individual needs of students, schools and communities; student data; a referral procedure; and/or other relevant data.
  2. Provide equal access to group participation, including reducing physical, language and other barriers.
  3. Assess the student's needs to determine if group participation is appropriate for the student.
  4. Inform parents/guardians of student participation and the purpose of the small group.
  5. Facilitate short-term groups to address student academic achievement, post-secondary and career exploration, and social/emotional well-being.
  6. Use data to inform group issues, set clear expectations, and measure results of group engagement.
  7. Reflect on group results and make adjustments that might improve future group interventions.
  8. Communicate the desire for confidentiality as a group norm, recognizing and working from the protective attitude that student confidentiality cannot be guaranteed in small groups.
  9. Select topics for groups with a clear understanding that some topics are not appropriate for groups in schools (e.g., incest survival, eating disorders, dating violence) and take appropriate precautions to protect members from harm caused by interactions with the community protection group.
  10. Enable cultural support groups within the framework of evidence-based practices or research.
  11. Practice within your skill level and develop professional competence through training and supervision.
  12. Provide necessary follow-up and/or referrals to additional resources for group members.

A.8. Peer Support Program

School counselor:

  1. Share the purpose and purpose of the student support program with interested parties.
  2. Protect the well-being of students who participate in peer-to-peer programs under their direction.
  3. Strive to protect the confidentiality of students receiving peer support services by not sharing or disclosing personal information (eg, special education services, academic information).
  4. Work to select care partners that reflect the diversity of the population to be served.
  5. Enabling equal access, representation and cultural sustainability in peer support programs.
  6. Develop, train, and guide students in peer support school counseling programs using culturally relevant frameworks that promote inclusion and belonging.
  7. Let peer support students know when students should report information to a responsible adult at school.

A.9. Serious and foreseeable harm to you and others

School counselor:

  1. Notify parents/guardians and school administrators if a student poses a serious and foreseeable risk of harm to self or others. This notification must be made after careful consideration and consultation with appropriate professionals, such as another school counselor, school nurse, school psychologist, school social worker, school resource officer, or child protective services. Even if the danger seems relatively small, parents/guardians should be notified. The risk of not giving parents/guardians the opportunity to intervene on their child's behalf is too great.
  2. Recognize that it is difficult to accurately quantify suicide risk (eg, low, moderate, high). If a risk assessment is to be used, it should be carried out keeping in mind that it is an information gathering tool and only one element in the risk assessment process. When reporting risk assessment results to parents/guardians, school counselors do not negate the risk of students being harmed, even if the assessment indicates a low risk, as students can minimize the risk to obtain improved testing and/or avoid notifying parents/guardians. 🇧🇷 The purpose of reporting risk assessment results to parents/guardians is to emphasize the need for parent/guardian action and not to make a risk assessment.
  3. Work with school administrators to ensure the student receives appropriate care and support. If the parent/guardian does not provide adequate support, the school counselor will take steps to alert the parent/guardian to the need to seek help and may sometimes include a report to Child Protective Services.
  4. Provide parents/guardians with culture-sensitive mental health resources.
  5. Report this to administration and/or relevant authorities (eg, law enforcement) if a student reveals an actual or perceived threat to another person's physical or mental well-being. This threat may include, but is not limited to, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, dating violence, intimidation or stalking. The school counselor follows applicable federal and state laws, as well as school and district policies.

A. 10. Marginalized populations

School counselor:

  1. Advocate with and for students to ensure they stay safe at home, in their communities and at school. A high level of due diligence includes determining what information is shared with parents/guardians and when information creates an unsafe environment for students.
  2. Actively work to create a safe, equitable, and affirming school environment in which all members of the school community demonstrate respect, inclusion, and acceptance.
  3. Identify and advocate for resources needed to optimize and support academic, professional, and social/emotional development opportunities.
  4. Work with parents/guardians as appropriate and strive for consistent, constructive two-way communication in your preferred language to ensure the student's needs are met.
  5. Understand and uphold the right of all students to be treated in a manner that honors and respects their identity and expression, including but not limited to race, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, language and ethnicity. and be free from any form of discipline, harassment or discrimination based on your identity or expression.
  6. Advocate for equal rights and access to free and decent public education for all youth that does not stigmatize or isolate students based on race, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, language, immigration status, juvenile justice/court attendance , housing, socioeconomic status, skills, care, transportation, special education, mental health and/or other exceptions or special needs.
  7. Advocate for access and inclusion in opportunities (e.g., Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, Gifted and Talented, Honors, Dual Enrollment) where students are not stigmatized based on race, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, language , isolation or exclusion. Immigrant status, juvenile justice/court participation, housing, socioeconomic status, skills, welfare, transportation, special education, mental health, and/or other exceptions or special needs.
  8. Actively advocate for systemic and other changes necessary for equitable participation and outcomes in educational programs where participation in such programs is disproportionate based on race, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, language, immigrant status, youth justice/involvement in court, housing is , socioeconomic conditions. status, ability, care, transportation, special education, mental health and/or other exceptions or special needs.
  9. Recognize the strengths and challenges of students with disabilities and provide best practices to support their academic, professional, and social/emotional needs.

A. 11. Incidents of bullying, harassment, discrimination, prejudice and hate

School counselor:

  1. Recognize that incidents of bullying, discrimination, prejudice and hatred based on race, gender, sexual orientation and ethnic origin are violations of federal law and many state and local laws and district policies.
  2. Advocate for school-wide policies, protocols, and training to respond to incidents of bullying, harassment, and bias that focus on safety, belonging, and fairness.
  3. Advocate for accessible and effective tools for students or the community to report incidents of bullying, hate, or prejudice.
  4. Report all incidents of bullying, dating violence or harassment to Administration and acknowledge that such conduct may be illegal under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 or other federal and state statutes and requires intervention by Administrator.
  5. Recognize that prejudice is not only potentially traumatic for students, but can also cause significant harm and disruption in the school environment. Enable and monitor the prevention of bullying, harassment, discrimination, hate and prejudice throughout the school through active practices that support a positive school climate, culture and belonging.
  6. In response to a hate or bias incident (e.g., discrimination, overt bias, hate speech), work with administrative teams to ensure safety, support targeted students, enable effective communication, provide education, connect students with resources and provide healing, nurturing and recovery in the school community.
  7. Assist victims in developmentally appropriate ways and in the context of the incident, encourage growth, and provide tools for accountability and change (e.g., other violations of federal and state laws or school and city policies.
  8. Actively respond to prejudice or hatred, demonstrate a commitment to justice, and promote a safe and inclusive school community.

A.12. child abuse

School counselor:

  1. Report all suspected cases of child abuse and neglect to the appropriate authorities as required by the state, recognizing that certainty is not necessary, only reasonable suspicion. School counselors are held to a higher standard of absolute duty than delegated reporters to report suspected child abuse and neglect.
  2. Develop and maintain experience in recognizing the signs of child abuse and neglect. Advocate for training so students and staff have the knowledge and skills needed to recognize the signs and who to report suspected child abuse and neglect.
  3. Take reasonable precautions to protect the privacy of students suspected of abuse or neglect from those who have no legitimate need to know.
  4. Learn about current state laws and school system procedures for reporting child abuse and neglect and methods for defending the physical and emotional safety of students following reports of abuse/neglect.
  5. Connect students who have experienced abuse and neglect to services provided by local school districts and community agencies.

A. 13. Student documents

School counselor:

  1. Comply with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), which defines who has access to student education records and gives parents/guardians the right to review records and any perceived inaccuracies in their child's records to challenge
  2. Uphold the ethical use of student data and records and report inappropriate or harmful administrative practices.
  3. Recognize the difficulty of adhering to FERPA's definition of sole proprietorship records.
  4. Recognize that proprietary records and case notes may be subpoenaed unless there is a specific state privileged communications law that specifically protects communications between the student and the school counselor.
  5. Recognize that electronic communications with school officials regarding individual students, even without using student names, are likely to create student records that must be handled in accordance with FERPA and state law.
  6. Establish a reasonable timeline for deleting proprietary records or case notes. Suggested policies include destroying proprietary paper records or deleting proprietary electronic records when a student advances to the next grade, transfers to another school, or graduates. School counselors will not destroy copyrighted records that may be required by a court, such as B. Notes on child abuse, suicide, sexual harassment or violence without prior review and approval by the District Attorney. School counselors follow district policies and procedures when communicating with legal counselors.

A. 14. Evaluation, Evaluation and Interpretation

School counselor:

  1. Use only valid and reliable research-based tests and assessments that are culturally sensitive, in the student's preferred language, and free of bias.
  2. Comply with all professional standards and regulations when selecting, administering, and interpreting standardized assessment tools, and only use assessment tools that are within the reach of school counselors and are licensed, certified, competent, and trained to use.
  3. Follow confidentiality guidelines when using paper or electronic assessment tools and programs.
  4. Consider the student's developmental age, language ability, native language, and proficiency level when determining the suitability of an assessment.
  5. Wherever possible, use multiple data points, both quantitative and qualitative, to provide students and families with complete and accurate information to promote student well-being.
  6. Provide a translation, in the student's preferred language, of the nature, purpose, outcomes, and potential impact of the assessment/assessment activities in a language that students and parents/guardians can understand.
  7. Monitor the use of assessment results and their interpretation, and take appropriate steps to prevent others from misusing the information.
  8. Use care when selecting or using assessment techniques, conducting assessments, and interpreting the performance of populations not represented in the normative group for which an instrument is standardized.
  9. Conduct and disseminate the results of evaluations of school guidance programs to determine the effectiveness of activities that support students' academic, school/professional, and social/emotional development through accountability measures, particularly examining efforts to fill opportunity gaps.

A. 15. Technical and Digital Citizenship

School counselor:

  1. Advocate for equal access to technology for all students.
  2. Demonstrate the appropriate selection and equitable use of culturally sustainable technologies and software applications to enhance students' academic, professional, and social/emotional development. Attention is paid to the legal and ethical considerations of technology applications, including confidentiality issues, security issues, potential limitations and benefits, and electronic media communication practices.
  3. Take appropriate and reasonable steps to maintain the confidentiality of student information and educational records stored or transmitted through the use of computers, social media, fax machines, telephones, voice mail, answering machines and other electronic technologies.
  4. Promote the safe and responsible use of technology in partnership with educators and families.
  5. Promote the benefits and clarify the limitations of various appropriate technology applications.
  6. Use established and proven means of communicating with students, maintain appropriate boundaries, and help educate students about proper communication and boundaries.
  7. Understand the confidentiality challenges of using email and establish protocols and limits for email responses.
  8. Advocate for the use of virtual learning tools that incorporate safeguards and protocols that protect highly sensitive student information.
  9. Defend alerting tools or applications that require constant monitoring by school staff. These tools are not aligned with the nature and function of school counseling.

A. 16. Virtual/distance school counseling

School counselor:

  1. Maintain the same legal and ethical standards in a virtual/remote/hybrid environment as you would in a face-to-face environment.
  2. Recognise, acknowledge and address the unique challenges and limitations of virtual/remote/hybrid school counseling.
  3. Work with school administrators and other support staff to establish procedures for students to follow in emergencies and other situations when the school counselor is unavailable.
  4. Recognize and address confidentiality limitations of virtual/remote/hybrid school counseling that may include bystanders or unintended recipients.
  5. Educate students and parents/guardians about the benefits and limitations of virtual/remote/hybrid school counseling.
  6. Educate students on how to participate in the electronic school counseling relationship to minimize and prevent potential misunderstandings that may arise due to lack of verbal cues and inability to read body language or other visual cues that provide contextual meaning to the process and school counseling relationship confers, can occur.
  7. Recognize challenges in virtual/remote/hybrid environments in supporting students who are contemplating suicide, including but not limited to identifying their physical location, being connected to the call or device, communicating with their parents/legal guardians, and obtaining help to reach your location.


B.1. Obligations of Parents/Guardians

School counselor:

  1. Recognize, honor and respect the importance of parents/guardians in serving students in a school setting and work with students' parents/guardians as appropriate.
  2. Respect the rights and responsibilities of custodial and non-custodial parents/guardians and build a cooperative relationship where appropriate to enable and encourage maximum student growth in the areas of academic, professional, and social/emotional development.
  3. Promote equity and inclusion through culturally affirmative and solidary practices that celebrate the diversity of families. Recognize that all parents/guardians, both custodial and non-custodial, have certain rights and responsibilities for the welfare of their children by their role and under the law.
  4. Educate parents about the School Counseling Program's mission and standards in academic, professional, and social/emotional areas that promote and improve the learning process and outcomes for all students.
  5. Comply with the Student Rights Protection Amendment when using universal assessments, surveys, or needs assessments, and notify parents/guardians prior to use, consistent with school district policies and local, state, and federal law.
  6. Engage a diverse cross-section of parents/guardians and caregivers to provide opportunities for meaningful contributions to the school counseling program.
  7. Comply with federal, state and municipal laws; district policy; and ethical practice in serving parents/guardians who are experiencing family difficulties that affect the well-being of their students.
  8. Inform parents/guardians of the confidential nature of the school counseling relationship between the school counselor and the student, while acknowledging that parents/guardians have legal rights to student information.
  9. Respect the privacy of parents/guardians in the student's best interest.
  10. Provide accurate, complete, and relevant information to parents/guardians in a conscientious manner, as appropriate and consistent with the legal and ethical responsibilities of students and parents/guardians. Use due diligence in a timely and efficient manner to raise concerns that affect student safety and well-being.
  11. In case of divorce, separation or custody, follow the guidelines and provisions of the legal documentation with the student at the center. Maintain clear boundaries and a neutral stance when working with parents/guardians.

B.2. school responsibilities

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School counselor:

  1. Develop and maintain professional relationships and communication systems with faculty, staff, and administrators to support students.
  2. Design and deliver comprehensive school counseling programs that are an integral part of the school's academic mission, based on analysis of student data based on the ASCA National Model.
  3. Advocate for a school counseling program free of the after-school counseling assignments identified by the ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs.
  4. Exercise leadership to bring about systemic change to create safe, supportive environments and equitable outcomes for all students.
  5. Work with appropriate officials to remove obstacles that may undermine the effectiveness of the school and/or school counseling program in promoting equitable student outcomes.
  6. Provide support, advice and guidance to professionals who may need help in improving the school climate and student outcomes.
  7. Consistent with federal and state laws and school and district policies, report to appropriate officials conditions that may be potentially disruptive or harmful to the mission, staff, and property of the school and, to the extent possible, respect confidentiality between students and school advisors .
  8. Encourage administrators to use licensed/certified school counselors who are competent, qualified, and have a master's or higher degree in school counseling from an accredited institution.
  9. Advocate for equitable school guidance program policies and practices for all students and stakeholders.
  10. Advocate for the use of certified bilingual/multilingual translators to represent the languages ​​used by families in the school community and to support broader communication and cultural engagement.
  11. Validate the abilities of all students and advocate for their learning needs by supporting the provision of adequate housing and accessibility.
  12. Provide families with culture-sensitive information to improve understanding, improve communication, encourage engagement, and improve student outcomes.
  13. Promote culturally sustainable practices to create a safe and inclusive school environment with equitable outcomes for all students.
  14. Comply with educational/psychological research practices, confidentiality safeguards, safety practices, and school district policies when conducting research.
  15. Use school and community resources to promote equity and access for all students.
  16. Use inclusive language in all forms of communication and ensure that students and stakeholders have access to materials in their preferred languages ​​whenever possible.
  17. Work together, as needed, to provide optimal service with other school and community professionals with legitimate educational interests (e.g., school nurse, school psychologist, school social worker, speech therapist) in compliance with all local, state, and applicable federal laws.
  18. Strive to address and remedy work environments and conditions that do not reflect the ethics of the school counselor profession, using advocacy and problem-solving skills.

B. 3. Responsibility with yourself

School counselor:

  1. Have obtained a master's or higher degree in school counseling or equivalent from an accredited institution.
  2. Maintain membership in professional school guidance organizations to stay abreast of current research and maintain subject matter expertise on current school guidance topics and issues.
  3. Accept employment only for positions for which you are qualified through education, training, supervised experience, and state/national professional qualifications.
  4. Follow the profession's ethical standards and other official policy statements, such as B. ASCA position and role statements, school board policies, and applicable laws. When laws and codes of ethics conflict, school counselors work to uphold both as much as possible.
  5. Participate in routine content-related professional development to stay abreast of student and other stakeholder trends and needs, and regularly attend training on current legal and ethical responsibilities.
  6. Examine and investigate implicit biases and implications for practice and interaction with students; Apply learning to practice and program development.
  7. Develop knowledge and understanding of historical and systemic oppression, social justice, and cultural models (eg, multicultural counseling, anti-racism, culturally supportive practices) to build skills for systemic change and equitable outcomes for all students.
  8. Recognize the potential for stress and secondary trauma. Practice wellness and self-care by managing your mental, emotional, and physical health and seeking guidance from an experienced school counselor and/or others as needed.
  9. Monitor staff behavior and recognize the high level of care a professional in this critical position of trust must maintain on and off the job. School counselors are aware of and refrain from activities that could affect their effectiveness within the school community.
  10. Apply an ethical decision-making model and seek guidance and supervision from peers and other professionals knowledgeable in professional practice when ethical issues arise.
  11. Respect student diversity and identity and seek coaching/guidance when biases interfere with providing comprehensive school counseling services to all students in preschool through grade 12. School counselors will not deny services to students based solely on personal beliefs/values ​​rooted in their own religion, culture or ethnicity. School counselors work to create a school climate that is inclusive of diverse identities and promotes equitable outcomes in academic, professional, and social/emotional development for all students.
  12. Be aware of and clearly distinguish between actions and statements (oral or written) made privately and those made as representatives of the school counselor profession and the school district/board.
  13. Respect the intellectual property of others, comply with copyright laws, and properly cite the work of others when using it.

C. Principals/Administrators/Supervisors of School Counselors

Principals/Administrators/School Counselors Supervisors support incumbent school counselors by:

  1. Advocate for adequate resources, within and outside their schools or districts, to implement a school counseling program and address the needs of students and the school community.
  2. Advocate for fair and open allocation of resources among supervised programs, using a non-discriminatory, equitable allocation process based on comprehensive data and consistently applied.
  3. Take reasonable steps to ensure that school and other resources are available to supervise and train staff.
  4. Provide professional development opportunities in current research related to school counseling practices, competencies, and ethics.
  5. Take steps to eliminate conditions or practices in their schools or organizations that may violate, discourage, or interfere with compliance with laws and ethics related to the counseling profession or equitable outcomes for students.
  6. Monitor policies, regulations and procedures of schools and organizations to ensure practices are consistent with ASCA's Ethical Standards for School Counselors.
  7. Use and/or endorse a performance appraisal tool aligned with the ASCA Professional Standards and Competencies for School Counselors that assesses the knowledge, skills and attitudes of school counselors.
  8. Understand the ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors, the ASCA National Model, and the ASCA School Counselors Professional Standards and Competencies.
  9. Provide opportunities and support for staff to develop knowledge and understanding of historical and systemic oppression, social justice and cultural models (e.g. multicultural counseling, anti-racism, cultural support practices) to build skills for systemic and equitable outcomes for all students .
  10. Work with and consult with graduate school counseling programs to support proper on-site supervisee placement and ensure quality education essential to preparing school counselors.


  1. They are licensed or certified school counselors with knowledge of school counseling programs and ethical practices for school counselors.
  2. Have education and training to provide school counseling supervision and conduct regular professional development activities in counseling and supervisory topics and skills.
  3. Use a development-oriented continuous supervision model that includes, among other things, stimulating professional growth, supporting best practices and ethical practices, evaluating supervisee performance and developing plans for improvement, advising in specific cases and assisting in the development of a Procedure includes .
  4. Engage in culturally-affirmative supervision, maintain cultural competence, and consider cultural and historical factors and power dynamics that may affect the supervisory relationship.
  5. Avoid supervisory relationships with people you cannot be objective with (for example, family or close friends).
  6. They are familiar with the technology used to perform online surveillance and monitoring functions, if applicable. Supervisors protect all confidential information transmitted electronically.
  7. Understand that there are differences in face-to-face and virtual communication (eg, lack of verbal and non-verbal cues) that can affect virtual supervision. Supervisors train supervisees on how to communicate electronically to prevent and avoid potential problems and negative outcomes.
  8. Provide information about how and when virtual supervision services will be used and provide school counselors with reasonable access to relevant applications.
  9. Ensuring that performance reviews are conducted in a timely, fair and thoughtful manner; base assessments on clearly defined criteria; and use the data when available.
  10. Make sure supervisees are aware of policies and procedures related to supervision and evaluation, and establish due process if supervisees object to your evaluation.
  11. Understand supervisee limitations and raise concerns with university/college supervisor in a timely manner.
  12. Assist supervisees in selecting the appropriate professional development based on identified needs.
  13. Communicate with university/college supervisors and consult with school administrators to recommend attendance or dismissal if supervisees cannot demonstrate competence as school counselors as defined by the ASCA School Counselor's professional competencies and standards. Document the recommendations and make sure supervisees are aware of such decisions and the resources available to them.
  14. Recognize and acknowledge the specific roles of educators, school counselors, local managers, and internship/internship students. Supervisors ensure that supervisees are able to participate in a variety of academic, academic/professional, and social/emotional activities through individual, group, and classroom interventions.


When there is no established opinion or belief about the ethical behavior of a colleague, the following procedures may serve as a guide:

  1. School counselors confidentially consult with professional colleagues to discuss potentially unethical behavior and determine whether the situation constitutes an ethical violation.
  2. School counselors will discuss and seek resolution directly with the peer whose behavior is in question, unless the behavior is illegal, abusive, egregious or dangerous. In this case, the responsible school or community authorities will be contacted.
  3. School counselors understand the reporting requirements mandated by their respective districts and states.
  4. School counselors will take appropriate action in the following order if the issue remains unresolved at the school, school district, state Department of Education level and/or Professional Standards/Practice Commission: 1. Consult the Counselors' School Counselor's Statement of Ethics State School Association, if applicable. yes If no such agency exists, contact the state school advisory association administration. ii. If the issue is still not resolved, continue to step 2. 2. Contact the American Association of School Counselors. Formal documentation of the actions taken and the Complainant's and Respondent's response must be filed on paper with the ASCA Ethics Committee, c/o Executive Director, American School Counselor Association, 1101 King St., Suite 310, Alexandria, VA 22314.


When faced with an ethical dilemma, school counselors and school counseling program leaders/supervisors use a model of ethical decision-making.

  1. Define the ethical dilemma.
  2. Identify potential cultural, religious, and philosophical factors and power dynamics present in a potential ethical dilemma.
  3. Apply ASCA's ethical standards for school counselors and applicable district policies and procedures.
  4. Contact appropriate professionals (eg supervisors, other Studentenwerk professionals, peer counsellors, cultural specialists).
  5. Consider the student's chronological age and developmental level.
  6. Consider the rights of parents/guardians and students
  7. Apply the following ethical principles: Charity: working for the benefit of individuals and society, promoting mental health and well-being; Autonomy: promoting the right to determine the course of one's own life; non-harm: avoiding actions that cause harm justice: treating people fairly and promoting justice and equality; Loyalty: Fulfilling commitments and fulfilling promises, including fulfilling the duties of trust in professional relationships; Honesty: Deal honestly with people with whom school counselors have professional contact.
  8. Identify action options and their consequences.
  9. Evaluate the selected action.
  10. Implement the procedure and analyze the result.
  11. Identify any inconsistencies in school/district policy for possible review.
  12. Siehe andere ethische Entscheidungsmodelle: Cross-Cultural Ethical Decision-Making Model, Luke et al., (2013) Solutions to ethical problems in schools (STEPS), Stone (2003) Ethical justification model, Kitchener (1984)


Advocate: A person who speaks, writes, or acts to promote the well-being of students, parents/guardians, school and community officials, and the school counselor profession. School counselors work to create and maintain equitable systems, policies and practices.

Anti-racist: Someone who expresses the idea that race is a social construction and does not exist biologically, while supporting policies that eliminate racial inequality and combat racism.

Consent: To demonstrate consent when a student is unable to provide informed consent for a counseling or other service provided by the school counselor.

Assessment: Gather detailed information about an individual to develop a comprehensive plan that will guide the collaborative counseling and service delivery process.

Bigotry Incident: Use of hateful images, language, or actions, usually non-criminal in nature, motivated by bigotry, prejudice, or hatred of individuals based on perceived disability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, national origin, race, sex, or orientation targets' sexual orientation.

Limits: something that indicates or establishes an extension or limits.

Breach: Disclosure of information provided in private or confidential communications, e.g. B. Information Provided During Consultation.

Bullying: Deliberate and repeated harmful acts, words or other behavior, such as verbal abuse, threats and/or rejection by one or more children towards others. These negative actions are not intentionally provoked by the victims, and in order to define such actions as bullying, there must be an imbalance in real or perceived power between the bully and the victim. Harassment can be physical, verbal, emotional or sexual.

Competence: the quality of being competent; Adequacy; Possess the necessary skills, knowledge, qualifications or skills.

Confidentiality: The ethical duty of school counselors to responsibly protect a student's private communications shared in counseling.

Conflict of Interest: A situation where a school counselor personally benefits from a decision that affects a student.

Consent: Permission, approval or agreement; Warning.

Counseling: A professional relationship in which people come together to seek advice, information, and/or guidance to meet a student's needs.

Conventional parameters: general agreement or recognized standards regarding limits, limits or guidelines.

(Video) ASCA Ethical Standards in Comprehensive School Counseling Programs

Cultural sensitivity: a set of skills that allow knowing, understanding and appreciating the similarities and differences between people; Change your behavior to be more effective and respectful of students and families; and offer programs that meet the diverse needs of students.

Culturally sustainable school guidance policies and practices that affirm and embrace cultural pluralism, promote cultural literacy, and actively advocate for equitable systems and outcomes.

Custody and Non-Custody: Physical Custody: A term used to determine which parent a minor student resides with by court order. By court order, the parent who has custody has physical custody of the minor child, while the parent who does not have custody does not have physical custody of the minor child. Legal Custody: Both custodial and non-custodial parents have legal guardianship rights over their children's records, unless otherwise provided by court documents.

Data Dialogues: Ask others about student data to uncover inequities, encourage informed research, and understand what the data means and what next steps are being taken to impact the data.

Informed Data: Access data, give it meaning, and use it to influence student success.

Developmental Stage/Age: A person's age, as determined by their level of emotional, mental, and physiological maturity compared to behaviors and characteristics typical of that chronological age.

Disclosure: The act or instance of disclosure or disclosure.

Diversity: The inclusion of individuals representing more than one national origin, gender identity, gender expression, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and the intersection of cultural and social identities.

Dual Relationship: A relationship in which a school counselor simultaneously fulfills two or more roles with a student.

Empathy: The act of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and indirectly experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experiences of another person without fully communicating the feelings, thoughts, and experiences objectively and explicitly.

Emancipated Minors: Minors who are legally released from the control of their parents/guardians and the parents/guardians are exempt from any responsibility towards the children.

Encryption: The process of encrypting information to control and limit access to authorized users.

Justice: fair treatment; Educational equity occurs when educators provide all students with the quality instruction and support they need to meet and exceed a common standard.

Ethics: the rules and principles of conduct and philosophy that govern the profession.

Ethical Conduct: Actions defined by the profession's standards of conduct.

Ethical Commitment: Norm or set of norms that define the exercise of the profession.

Ethical Rights: The basic normative rules about what is permissible or due to people under a legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.

Feasible: Can be done, influenced or achieved easily or conveniently.

Gender Expression: The way in which students express masculinity or femininity in terms of dress, communication patterns, and interests, which may or may not reflect the student's gender identity.

Gender identity: the personal experience of one's gender. If their gender identity and biological sex do not match, the student may identify as transgender.

Guardian Ad Litem: A guardian appointed by a court to supervise someone during a case.

Harassment: the act of unwelcome, systematic and/or continuous, harassing or disturbing harassment.

Informed Consent: Help students understand the boundaries of confidentiality, benefits, facts, and risks of entering into a counseling relationship.

Intervention: Provision of modifications, materials, advice, tools, services or other forms of support to positively affect the outcome or course of a condition.

Legal order: court order or order issued by a court or magistrate ordering proper conduct to enforce a sentence, judgment or injunction.

(Video) ASCA Code of Ethics Overview

Legal rights: the rights granted to an individual by a given legal system.

Obligation to report: The legal obligation to report to authorities.

Minors: Persons under the age of 18, unless otherwise provided by law or regulations.

Oppression: Unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power.

Perception: a mental image or awareness of the environment through a bodily sensation; an ability to understand or the result of an observation.

Peer Helper: Peer interaction in which people of similar age take on a helping role to help students who may share similar values, experiences, and lifestyles.

Peer Support: Programs that improve the effectiveness of the school counseling program while increasing outreach and raising student awareness of services.

Privacy: An individual's right to protect themselves and their personal information from unauthorized disclosure.

Privileged Communication: Conversation that takes place in the context of a protected relationship, such as B., between an attorney and a client, spouses, a priest and a penitent, a doctor and a patient, and, in some states, a school counselor and a student.

Professional Development: The process of improving and expanding skills through access to education and training opportunities.

Racial Prejudice: An inappropriate personal judgment made solely about a person's race.

Racism: when individuals, systems or institutions evaluate or treat a person or group more favorably because of their race or ethnicity.

Relationship: A connection, association, or involvement.

Risk assessment: a systematic process for assessing potential risks.

School Counselor: A qualified professional who provides school counselors and school counselor candidates with guidance, instruction, and professional development support.

Serious and foreseeable harm: when a reasonable person can foresee the possible significant and harmful consequences.

Proprietary Records: Records used only as personal reminders, kept in the sole possession of the Registrar and not accessible or disclosed to any other person except as a temporary substitute for the Registrar, and which provide professional information only. personal opinions or observations. Proprietary records are exempt from the definition of educational records and the protection of FERPA.

Stakeholder: An individual or group that shares an investment or interest in students and/or the school community (e.g., parents/guardians, school staff, administrators, business and community stakeholders, school board members, etc.) .

Systemic change: change that affects the entire system; transforming; change affecting more than one person or a variety of people; focuses on the dynamics of the environment, not the individual.

Supervision: cooperative relationship in which one person stimulates and/or evaluates the development of the other.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972: A law providing that no person in the United States may be disqualified from participating in educational programs or activities, denied benefits, or discriminated against on the basis of sex. receive federal grants.

Universal Screener: Gathers information on behavioral and mental health issues by analyzing existing data/comments from educators or asking questions directly to students. Schools that receive federal funding and use a universal screener that asks at least one question from any of the eight areas protected by the Student Rights Protection Amendment (PPRA) must obtain active parental/guardian consent, if necessary, so that a student completes the exam and passively agrees. if the assessment is voluntary (US Department of Education, PPRA, 2022).

Virtual/Remote Consultation: Consultation by electronic means.


What is the purpose of the ASCA ethical standards for school counselors? ›

Purpose. In this document, ASCA specifies the obligation to the principles of ethical behavior necessary to maintain the highest standards of integrity, leadership and professionalism.

What are ASCA ethical codes? ›

Understand and advocate for all students' right to be treated in a manner that honors and respects their identity and expression, including but not limited to race, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, language and ability status, and to be free from any form of discipline, harassment or ...

What are the four components of the ASCA Model? ›

The framework of the ASCA National Model consists of four components: define, manage, deliver and assess. Three sets of school counseling standards define the school counseling profession.

What are some of the legal and ethical considerations that school counselors need to be aware of when creating interventions? ›

A Look at Ethical Issues in School Counseling
  • Confidentiality and Its Limits. ...
  • Keep a Professional Distance. ...
  • Respect Differences in Cultural Values and Traditions. ...
  • Provide Equal Access to Opportunities and Support. ...
  • Be Aware of Dual Relationships.
Mar 4, 2021

What are the ethical standards in counseling? ›

Obtain informed consent from clients entering a counseling relationship. Respect a client's confidentiality and privacy. Explain to clients what the counseling relationship entails (which could include fees, group work, and termination). Be cognizant of client's culture, values, and beliefs.

What are the six codes of ethics of counselor? ›

Counselors have a responsibility both to clients and the institution within which services are performed to maintain high standards of professional conduct.
  • General Responsibility. ...
  • Confidentiality. ...
  • Children and Persons with Diminished Capacity. ...
  • Maintenance of Records. ...
  • Access to Records. ...
  • Dual Relationships.
Mar 6, 2007

What are the 5 ASA ethical standards? ›

The five principles of ASA are: (1) professional competence, (2) integrity, (3) professional and scientific responsibility, (4) respect for people's rights, dignity, and diversity, and (5) social responsibility.

What are the 5 ethical standards? ›

Moral Principles

The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are each absolute truths in and of themselves. By exploring the dilemma in regards to these principles one may come to a better understanding of the conflicting issues.

What are the 3 domains of counseling? ›

Through the curriculum, school counselors teach classroom lessons organized into three domains—academic, career and social-emotional—to all students.

How do you explain the ASCA model? ›

“The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs” outlines the components of a school counseling program that is integral to the school's academic mission and is created to have a significant positive impact on student achievement, attendance and discipline. Training and credentialing matters.

What are the four ethical principle of counseling? ›

Beauchamp and Childress (1979) identified four principles that are at the core of ethical reasoning in health care: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. Kitchener (1984) added a fifth principle— fidelity. She viewed these five principles as the cornerstone of ethical guidelines for counselors.

What is the 10 ethical behaviors of counselors? ›

These principles are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, fidelity, justice, veracity, and self-respect (American Counseling Association, 2014; British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, 2018). They are largely consistent across frameworks aside from some minor variations.

What are the most common ethical violations in counseling? ›

According to statistics, the most frequent complaints about ethical issues in counseling involve dual relationships, incompetence, practicing without a license or misrepresenting one's qualifications, sexual relationships with clients, and breach of confidentiality.

What ethical issues do school counselors face? ›

Issues such as trust, confidentiality, privacy, informed consent, parental rights, time constraints, large counselor/student ratios, self- harm, advocacy, and collaboration/communication with school stakeholders such as teachers, parents, and administrators pose some of the most common ethical challenges (Capuzzi, 2002 ...

What are the 8 ethical standards? ›

This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements.

What are the 12 ethical principles of ethics? ›

Generally, there are about 12 ethical principles: honesty, fairness, leadership, integrity, compassion, respect, responsibility, loyalty, law-abiding, transparency, and environmental concerns.

What are the unethical behavior of a counselor? ›

It is unethical for counselor to misconduct, work uncertified and unlicensed. In case of a counselor not being certified, licensed, even if he or she has a good conduct he or she can be implicated. It is ethical for a counselor to have regard for other fellow counselors in terms of their needs and feelings.

What was the purpose of ASCA national standards? ›

“The ASCA National Model: A Framework for School Counseling Programs” outlines the components of a school counseling program that is integral to the school's academic mission and is created to have a significant positive impact on student achievement, attendance and discipline.

Why are ethical standards important in counselling? ›

Ethics including ethical codes and principles aim to balance the power and ensure that the counsellor operates for the good of the client and not for self. Primarily, counsellors' duty of care is to their clients.

Why is ASCA important? ›

ASCA empowers school counselors with the knowledge, skills, linkages and resources to promote student success in the school, the home, the community and the world. The mission of ASCA is to represent school counselors and to promote professionalism and ethical practices.

Why is it important to develop ethical standards and codes in counseling? ›

Counselors who are not aware of their values, ethics and legal responsibilities as well as those of clients they can cause harm to their clients despite their good intentions. It is, therefore, vital for counselors to have knowledge of professional counseling guidelines.

What are the three domains of the ASCA model? ›

ASCA Position

School counselors deliver programs that have an impact on student growth in three domain areas: academic development, career development and social/emotional development (ASCA, 2019).

How does ASCA define a professional school counselor? ›

School counselors are certified/licensed educators who improve student success for ALL students by. implementing a comprehensive school counseling program. EMPLOYED AT ALL LEVELS. IDEAL CASELOAD. 250:1.

Why is it important for a school counselor to be culturally competent? ›

Cultural competence can help school counselors improve their practice to help specific student populations. People all have some preconceived beliefs, including some they may not be aware they have, and make judgments based on those beliefs.


1. NCYI Free Training - Legal & Ethical Issues for School Counselors with Dr. Carolyn Stone"
2. ASCA Training School Counselors To Stonewall Parents When It Comes To Students' Gender Decisions
(Courage Is A Habit)
3. School Counseling Ethics
(Sara Stinson)
4. Comparison of ACA, ASCA, CRCC Code of Ethics
(Emma DeMaranville)
5. PSCOC Virtual Conference: Dr. Christina Green-Lee - School Counselor's Guide for Ethical Decisions
(Keesh & Nab)
6. ASCA Model: Developing a Comprehensive School Counseling Program
(San Diego County Office of Education)


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